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Samuel Assessment Methods for Personality and Psychopathology Laboratory

SAMMPL Publications

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in press

  •  Samuel, D. B. & Tay, L. (in press). Aristotle’s golden mean and the importance of bipolarity for personality models: A commentary on “Personality Traits and Maladaptivity: Unipolarity and Bipolarity.” Journal of Personality. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B., Bucher , M. A., & Suzuki, T. (in press). A Preliminary Probe of Personality predicting psychotherapy outcomes: Perspectives from therapists and their clients. Psychopathology. [PDF]
  • Suzuki, T., South, S. C., Samuel, D. B., Wright, A. G. C., Yalch, M. M., Hopwood, C. J., & Thomas, K. M. (in press). Measurement invariance of the DSM-5 Section III pathological personality trait model across sex. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, & Treatment. [PDF]
  • Bucher, M. A. & Samuel, D. B. (in press). Development of a short form of the Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex Model to aid with the organization of personality traits. Journal of Personality Assessment. [PDF]
  • Griffin, S. A., Lynam, D. R., & Samuel, D. B. (in press). Understanding Representations of Impulsivity in Dimensional Models of Personality Pathology. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, & Treatment. [PDF]
  • Hopwood, C.J., Krueger, R.F., Watson, D., Widiger, T.A., Althoff, R.R., Ansell, E.B., Bach, B., Bagby, R.M., Bornovalova, M.A., Blais, M.A., Chmielewski, M., Cicero, D.C., Conway, C., De Clerq, B., De Fruyt, F., Docherty, A.R., Eaton, N.R., Edens, J.F., Forbes, M.K., Forbush, K.T., Hengartner, M.P., Ivanova, M.Y, Leising, D., Lukowitsky, M.R., Lynam, D.R., Markon, K.E., Miller, J.D., Morey, L.C., Mullins-Sweatt, S.N., Ormel, J.H., Patrick, C.J., Pincus, A.L., Ruggero, C., Samuel, D.B., Sellbom, M., Tackett, J.L., Thomas, K.M., Trull, T.J., Vachon, D.D., Waldman, I.D., Waszczuk, M.A., Waugh, M.H., Wright, A.G.C., Yalch, M.M., Zald, D.H., & Zimmermann, J. (in press). Comment on “The challenge of transforming the diagnostic system for personality disorders”. Journal of Personality Disorders. [PDF]
  • Krueger, R. F., Kotov, R., Watson, D., Forbes, M. K., Eaton, N. R. … Samuel, D. B.…Zimmerman, J. (in press). Progress in achieving quantitative classification of psychopathology. World Psychiatry. [PDF]


  • Griffin, S. A., Suzuki, T., Lynam, D. R., Crego, C., Widiger, T. A., Miller, J. D., & Samuel, D. B. (2018). Development and examination of the Five Factor Obsessive Compulsive Inventory – Short Form. Assessment. [PDF] 
  • Hopwood, C. J., Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., Widiger, T. A., … Samuel, D. B., …Zimmerman, J. (2018). The time has come for dimensional personality disorder diagnosis. Personality and Mental Health, 12, 82-86.  [PDF]
  • Moorman, E. L. & Samuel, D. B. (2018). Representing schizotypal thinking with dimensional traits: A case for the Five Factor Schizotypal Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 30, 19-30.  [PDF]


  • Bucher, M. A. & Samuel, D. B. (2017). The Five Factor Model of Personality. In A. Wenzel (Ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 
  • Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R., Bagby, M., Brown, T. A., Carpenter, W. T., Caspi, A., Clark, L. A., Eaton, N. R., Forbes, M. K.,  Forbush, K. T., Goldberg, D., Hasin, D., Hyman, S. E., Ivanova, M. Y., Lynam D. R., Markon, K., Miller, J. D., Moffitt, T. E., Morey, L. C., Ormel, J., Patrick, C. J., Regier, D. A., Rescorla, L., Robinson, E., Ruggero C. J., Samuel, D. B., Sellbom, M., Simms, L. J., Skodol, A. E., Slade, T., South, S. C., Tackett, J. L., Waldman, I. D., Widiger, T. A., Wright, A. G. C., & Zimmerman, M. (2017). The Hierarchical Taxonomy Of Psychopathology (HiTOP): A dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B. & Bucher, M. A. (2017). Assessing the assessors: The feasibility and validity of clinicians as a source for personality disorder research. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, & Treatment. [PDF]
  • Smith, T. E. & Samuel, D. B. (2017). A multi-method examination of the links between ADHD and personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders. [PDF]
  • Suzuki, T., Griffin, S. A., & Samuel, D. B. (2017). Capturing the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model traits in the five-factor model’s nomological net. Journal of Personality. [PDF]


  • Gritti, E. S., Samuel, D. B., Lang, M. (2016). Diagnostic agreement between clinicians and clients: The convergent and discriminant validity of the SWAP-200 and MCMI-III personality disorder scales. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30, 796-812.  [PDF]
  • Hill, K. E., Samuel, D. B., & Foti, D. (2016). Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity and conscientiousness. Psychophysiology. 53, 1143-1153. [PDF]
  • Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Samuel, D. B., & Helle, A. C. (2016). Clinical Utility of the Five-Factor Model. In T. Widiger (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of The Five Factor Model. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Samuel, D. B., Suzuki, T., & Griffin, S. A. (2016). Clinicians and clients don’t agree: Five implications for clinical science. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. [PDF]
  • Suzuki, T. & Samuel, D. B. (2016). Clarifying the nature and structure of personality disorder. In R. Scott & S. Kosslyn (Eds.) Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons PDF


  • Coates, M., Hanson, W., Samuel, D. B., Ashe, M., & Cozen, J. (2015).  The Beliefs, Events, and Values Inventory (BEVI): Psychological assessment implications and applications. In C.N. Shealy (Ed.), Making Sense of Beliefs and Values.  New York: Springer.   
  • Crego, C., Samuel, D. B., Widiger, T.A. (2015). The FFOCI and Other Measures and Models of OCPD. Assessment, 22, 135-151. [PDF]
  • Huprich, S. K., Paggeot, A. V., & Samuel, D. B. (in press). Comparing the SCID-II and Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (PDI-IV) borderline personality disorder scales: An item-response theory analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 13-21[PDF]
  • Maples, J. L., Carter, N. T., Few, L. R., Crego, C., Gore, W. L., Samuel, D. B., Williamson, R. L., Lynam, D. R., Widiger, T. A., Markon, K. E., Krueger, R. F., & Miller, J. D. (2015). Testing whether the DSM-5 personality disorder trait model can be measured with a reduced set of items:  An item response theory investigation of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Psychological Assessment, 27, 1195-1210.   PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B. (2015). A Review of the Agreement between Clinicians’ Personality Disorder Diagnoses and those from Other Methods and Sources. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 22, 1-19[PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B., South, S. C., & Griffin, S. A. (2015). Factorial Invariance of the Five Factor Model Rating Form across Gender. Assessment, 22, 6-75. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B. (2015). Thomas Widiger. In R. Cautin & S. Lilienfeld (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. PDF 
  • Samuel, D. B. & Griffin, S.A. (2015). A Critical Evaluation of Retaining Personality Categories and Types. In S. Huprich (Ed.) Personality Disorders: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Samuel, D. B. & Griffin, S. A. (2015). Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder. In  R. Cautin & S. Lilienfeld (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. PDF 
  • Suzuki, T., Samuel, D. B., Pahlen, S., Krueger, R. K. (2015). DSM-5 Alternative Personality Disorder Model Traits are Maladaptive Extreme Variants within the Five-Factor Model: An Item-Response Theory Analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 343-354.  [PDF]


  • Griffin, S. A., & Samuel, D. B. (2014). A Closer Look at the Lower-Order Structure of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5: Comparison with the Five Factor Model. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 5, 406-412. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B., Anez, L. M., Paris, M., & Grilo, C. M. (2014). The frequency of personality disorders and the agreement across different diagnostic methods among monolingual (Spanish-speaking-only) Hispanic patients at a community mental health center. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, & Treatment, 5, 172-177. [PDF]


  • Hopwood, C.J., Morey, L.C., Donnellan, M.B., Samuel, D.B., & Skodol, A.E. (2013).  Ten year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample. Journal of Personality, 81, 335-344. [PDF]
  • Lynam, D. R., Sherman, E., Samuel, D. B., Miller, J. D., Few, L. R., & Widiger, T.A. (2013). Development of a short form of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment. Assessment, 20, 659-669. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B. (2013). Five Factor Model Instruments and their Assessment of Personality Disorder. In T.A. Widiger & P.T. Costa, Jr. (Eds.), Personality Disorders and Five Factor Model of Personality (3rd ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.  
  • Samuel, D.B., & Ball, S.A. (2013) The Factor Structure and Concurrent Validity of the Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire – Research Version. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37, 150-159.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Carroll, K.M., Rounsaville, B.J., & Ball, S.A. (2013). Personality disorders as maladaptive, extreme variants of normal personality: Borderline personality disorder and neuroticism in a Substance Using Sample. Journal of Personality Disorders, 27, 625-635. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B., Hopwood, C. J., Krueger, R. F., Thomas, K. M., Ruggero, C. (2013). Comparing methods for scoring personality disorder types using maladaptive traits in DSM-5. Assessment, 20, 353-361. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Mullins-Sweatt, S.N., & Widiger, T.A. (2013). An investigation of the factor structure and convergent validity of the five-factor model rating form. Assessment, 20, 24-35[PDF] 
  • Samuel, D.B., Sanislow, C.A., Hopwood, C.J., Skodol, A.E., Shea, M.T., Zanarini, M.C., Ansell, E.B., Markowitz, J.C., & Grilo, C.M. (2013). Convergent and Incremental Predictive Validity of Clinician, Self-Report, and Structured Interview Diagnoses for Personality Disorders over Five Years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 650-659. [PDF]


  • Samuel, D.B., Connolly, A. J., & Ball, S.A. (2012). Five-Factor Model assessment of DSM-IV personality disorders within a sample of homeless individuals. Assessment, 19, 287-298.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B. & Gore, W. (2012). Five-factor model representations of obsessive-compulsive and dependent personality disorders. Journal of Personality, 80, 1669-1696[PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Lynam, D.R., Widiger, T.A., & Ball, S.A. (2012). An expert consensus approach to relating the proposed DSM-5 types and traits. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3, 1-16.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Miller, J.D., Widiger, T.A., Lynam, D.R., Pilkonis, P.A., & Ball, S.A. (2012). Conceptual Changes to the Definition of Borderline Personality Disorder Proposed for DSM-5. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 467-476. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D. B., Riddell, A. D. B., Lynam, D. R., Miller, J. D., & Widiger, T. A. (2012). A Five-Factor Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 456-465. [PDF]
  • Widiger, T. A., Samuel, D. B., Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Gore, W. L., & Crego, C. M. (2012). Integrating Normal and Abnormal Personality Structure: The Five Factor Model. Oxford Handbook of Personality Disorders (pp. 82-107).  PDF


  • Baer, R.A., Samuel, D.B., & Lykins, E.L.B (2011). Differential item functioning on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire is minimal in demographically matched meditators and nonmeditators. Assessment, 18, 3-10. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B. (2011). Assessing personality in the DSM-5: The utility of bipolar constructs. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 390-397. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B. (2011). Integrating personality disorder with basic personality science. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 123, 325-326. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Edmundson, M., & Widiger, T.A. (2011). Five-Factor Model prototype matching scores: Convergence within alternative methods. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(5), 571-585.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Hopwood, C.J., Ansell, E.B., Morey, L.C., Sanislow, C.A., Yen, S., Shea, M.T., Markowitz, J.C., Skodol, A.E., & Grilo, C.M. (2011). Comparing the temporal stability of self-report and interview assessed personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(3), 670-680. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Maccarelli, L.M., LaPaglia, D. M., Moore, B.A., & Ball, S.A. (2011). Personality disorders and retention in a therapeutic community for substance dependence. The American Journal on Addictions, 20, 555-562.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., & Widiger, T.A. (2011). Clinicians’ use of personality disorder models within a particular treatment setting: A longitudinal comparison of temporal consistency and clinical utility. Personality and Mental Health, 5, 12-28.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., & Widiger, T.A. (2011). Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2, 161-174.  [PDF]


  • Pope, H.G., Jr., Kean, J., Nash, A., Kanayama, G., Samuel, D.B., Hudson, J.I., & Bickel, W. (2010). A diagnostic interview module for anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 203-213. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Ansell, E.B., Hopwood, C.H., Morey, L.C., Markowitz, J.C, Skodol, A.E., & Grilo, C.M. (2010). The impact of NEO PI-R gender-norms on the assessment of personality disorder profiles. Psychological Assessment, 22, 539-545. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B. & Ball, S.A. (2010). Temporal stability of personality traits and disorders within substance dependent patients. Personality and Mental Health, 4, 246-256.[PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., Simms, L.J., Clark, L.A., Livesley, W.J., & Widiger, T.A. (2010). An item response theory integration of normal and abnormal personality scales. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1, 5-21. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., & Widiger, T.A. (2010). A comparison of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 232-240. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B., & Widiger, T.A. (2010). Comparing personality disorder models: Cross-method assessment of the FFM and DSM-IV-TR. Journal of Personality Disorders, 24(6), 721-745.  [PDF]


  • Samuel, D.B. & Widiger, T.A. (2009). Comparative gender biases in models of personality disorder. Personality and Mental Health, 3, 12-25.  [PDF]


  • Samuel, D.B. & Widiger, T.A. (2008). A meta-analytic review of the relationships between the five-factor model and DSM personality disorders: A facet level analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1326-1342. [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B. & Widiger, T.A. (2008). Convergence of narcissism measures from the perspective of general personality functioning. Assessment, 15, 364-374.  [PDF]


  • Samuel, D.B. & Widiger, T.A. (2007). Describing Ted Bundy’s personality and working towards DSM-V. Independent Practitioner, 27(1), pp. 20-22.  [PDF]


  • Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., Jamerson, J. E., Samuel, D. B., Olson, D. R., & Widiger, T. A. (2006). Psychometric properties of an abbreviated instrument of the Five-Factor Model. Assessment, 13, 119-137.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B. & Widiger, T.A. (2006).  Clinicians’ ratings of clinical utility:  A comparison of the DSM-IV and Five Factor Models.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 298-308.  [PDF]
  • Samuel, D.B.& Widiger, T.A. (2006).  Differentiating Normal and Abnormal Personality from the Perspective of the DSM.  In S.A. Strack (Ed.), Differentiating Normal and Abnormal Personality (2nd Edition, pp. 165-183). New York: Springer.  
  • Widiger, T.A., Costa, P.T., Jr., & Samuel, D.B. (2006).  Assessment of Maladaptive Personality Traits.  In S.A. Strack (Ed.), Differentiating Normal and Abnormal Personality (2nd Edition, pp. 311-335). New York: Springer.  


  • Widiger, T.A. & Samuel, D.B. (2005).  Diagnostic categories or dimensions: A question for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 494-504. [PDF]
  • Widiger, T.A. & Samuel, D.B. (2005). Evidence based assessment of personality disorders. Psychological Assessment, 17, 278-297.  [PDF]


  • Samuel, D.B. & Widiger, T.A. (2004).  Clinicians’ personality descriptions of prototypic personality disorders.  Journal of Personality Disorders, 18, 286-308.  [PDF]


  • Coker, L.A., Samuel, D.B., & Widiger, T.A. (2002).  Maladaptive personality functioning within the Big Five and the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16, 385-401.  [PDF]